Bariatric surgery, more commonly known as weight loss surgery, is a popular and effective way to cure obesity and obesity-related disorders and diseases such as diabetes, heart disease and high blood pressure. The main idea behind the surgery is to limit the supply of food to the body. This is achieved by either reducing the size of the stomach or the length of the digestive tract through one of several surgical procedures. Most of the procedures are performed laparoscopically while some require open surgery.
Weight loss surgeries are divided into three categories: restrictive surgery, malabsorptive surgery and mixed surgery.
Restrictive surgery involves reducing the size of the stomach in order to limit the intake of food by either removing a portion of the stomach or implanting a gastric band in the stomach. It leaves the alimentary canal untouched and thus minimizes the risks of metabolic complications.
- Vertical Banded Gastroplasty:
Also called Mason procedure or stomach stapling, this procedure involves stapling a part of the stomach to create a pouch between the stomach and the esophagus. This pouch serves as the new stomach which fills up quickly and causes the patient to eat less.
- Adjustable Gastric Band:
One of the safest procedures performed today, this laparoscopic procedure involves restricting the size of the stomach using a silicone band, which can be adjusted by adding or removing saline through a port place under the skin.
- Sleeve Gastrectomy:
In this laparoscopic procedure, a large portion of the stomach is surgically removed to reduce its size to 15% of the original size. The reduced stomach looks like a tube or a sleeve with a banana shape. This is an irreversible procedure and reduces the size of the stomach permanently.
- Intragastric Balloon:
In this procedure, a deflated balloon is surgically placed in the stomach and then filled to reduce the gastric space. The balloon can be left in the stomach for no more than 6 months.
- Gastric Plication:
A version of sleeve gastrectomy, this procedure involves creating a sleeve by suturing stomach tissue rather than removing it. It reduces the size of the stomach significantly.
Malabsorptive surgery involves reducing the length of the digestive tract to limit the absorption of nutrients by the body.
- Duodenal Switch:
In this procedure, a part of the stomach is resected to create a smaller stomach, which is then connected to the distal part of the small intestine bypassing the duodenum and jejunum. The duodenum is where most digestion takes place.
Mixed surgery is a combination of restrictive and malabsorptive surgery.
- Gastric Bypass Surgery:
The most common weight loss surgery in the USA, it involves stapling a part of the stomach to create a pouch and connecting it to the distal part of the small intestine, bypassing the duodenum.
- Sleeve Gastrectomy with Duodenal Switch:
In this procedure, a part of the stomach is resected along the greater curve and shaped into a tube-form with a residual volume of 150 ml. The stomach is then connected to the distal part of the small intestine bypassing the duodenum.
If you would like to know more about sleeve gastrectomy, please visit Advanced Metabolic And Bariatric Institute.